Streletskiy D., Anisimov O., Vasiliev A. 2014. Chapter 10 - Permafrost degradation, In Shroder J.F., Haeberli W. & Whiteman C. (Ed.), Snow and Ice-Related Hazards, Risks and Disasters, Academic Press, 2014, 303-344

Climatic changes over the last 50 years resulted in a decrease of permafrost extent, an increase of permafrost temperature, and deepening of the active layer in numerous locations across the Arctic and High Mountainous environments. Permafrost degradation poses serious impacts ranging from local changes in topographic and hydrologic conditions, impacts on infrastructure and sustainability of northern communities, changes to vegetation and wildlife dynamics, and to global impacts on climate system. Hazards associated with permafrost degradation are exacerbated in areas of human activities, especially in large settlements with developed infrastructure in the Arctic. Unlike smaller communities, which have higher mobility, large population centers have to build in situ adaptive capacity to face environmental changes. Permafrost degradation can have severe socioeconomic consequences as most of the existing infrastructure will require expensive engineering solutions to maintain economic activities on permafrost.

citation: 
Streletskiy D., Anisimov O., Vasiliev A. Chapter 10 - Permafrost degradation, In Shroder J.F., Haeberli W. & Whiteman C. (Ed.), Snow and Ice-Related Hazards, Risks and Disasters, Academic Press, 2014, 303-344
publication_date: 
октября, 2014